Taking photographs while underwater, usually while scuba diving, snorkeling, swimming, or from an underwater vehicle or automated camera lowered from the surface, is known as underwater photography. This type of photography results in images of marine life, the subaquatic environment (including shipwrecks, geological features such as cave systems and other underwater-scapes), and/or people pursuing underwater activities. More recently, underwater imagery has also been used to document the state of bodies of water and their ecosystems when it comes to issues of climate change and pollution.
Equipment is an important aspect of this genre as cameras tend not to be waterproof by default. If they are, they are usually limited to a particular depth. GoPros or smartphones in plastic pouches are sometimes used as a gateway into underwater photography before investing in more advanced camera equipment and proper, often expensive, underwater housing for a particular camera.
Shooting in water also comes with adjustments to the lens as water decreases the angle of view for a lens by 25-30%. Water clarity, the presence of waves or bubbles, currents, dangerous marine life, and proximity to the seafloor will all impact shots as well. Time of day and location in relation to the sun also play a significant factor in how underwater photos get captured, as do the settings of the camera being used. This genre is, therefore, more challenging to master, simply due to the additional costs for equipment and special safety concerns of the shooting environment.